Over the centuries of Islamic history, Islamic history rulers, Islamic history, and ordinary Muslims have held many different attitudes towards other religions. Attitudes have varied according to time, place and circumstance.
Non-Muslims under IslamEdit
Non-Muslims under Islamic history would be held under the status of Islamic history (from Arabic ذميّ th as pronounced in this) were allowed to "practice their religion, subject to certain conditions, and to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy" and guaranteed their personal safety and security of property, in return for paying tribute and acknowledging Muslim rule. Taxation from the perspective of thimmis who came under the Muslim rule, was "a concrete continuation of the taxes paid to earlier regimes" (but now lower under the Muslim rule) and from the point of view of the Muslim conqueror was a material proof of the dhimmi's subjection.
The Islamic history distinguishes between the monotheistic Islamic history (ahl al-kitab) (Islamic history, Islamic history, Islamic history and others), and Islamic history or idolaters on the other hand. The People of the Book should be tolerated to some extent: "whoever believes in God and the Last Day and does what is right—shall be rewarded by their Lord; they have nothing to fear or to regret." Islamic history are not given that same degree of tolerance. According to the Qur'an, Polytheism and atheism must be fought until all worship Allah alone. The unbelievers (polytheists, pagans, those who disagree with the oneness of Allah) must be captured and besieged, but if they repent and perform the Islamic ritual prayers and agree to pay the Islamic Tax Islamic history, they are set free. Islamic history and Islamic history are considered beyond the pale of tolerance. There are certain kind of restrictions, when involved with People of the Book, do not apply to polytheists. One example is Muslim males being allowed to marry a Christian or Jew, but not a polytheist. Muslim women, however may not marry non-Muslim men.
The idea of Islamic supremacy is encapsulated in the formula "Islam is exalted and nothing is exalted above it." Pursuant to this principle, Muslim women may not marry non-Muslim men, non-Muslims may not inherit from their Muslim relatives, and a testimony of a non-Muslim is inadmissible against a Muslim.
Islamic history is punishable by death. W. Heffening states that Shafi'is interpret verse as adducing the main evidence for the death penalty in Qur'an. Wael Hallaq states the death penalty was a new element added later and "reflects a later reality and does not stand in accord with the deeds of the Prophet." He further states that "nothing in the law governing apostate and apostasy derives from the letter of the holy text."
Practice of the early MuslimsEdit
During the ten years that Islamic history led his followers against the Islamic historyns and then against the other Islamic history tribes, Islamic history and Islamic historyish communities who had submitted to Muslim rule were allowed to worship in their own way and follow their own family law, and were given a fair degree of self-government.
The Jews generally rejected Muhammad's status as a prophet. According to Watt, "Jews would normally be unwilling to admit that a Islamic history could be a prophet." In the Islamic history, Muhammad demanded the Jews' political loyalty in return for religious and cultural autonomy.However, after each major battle with the Medinans, Muhammad accused one of the Jewish tribes of treachery (See ). After Islamic history and Islamic history, the Islamic history and Islamic history, respectively, were expelled "with their families and possessions" from Medina. After the Islamic history in 627, the Jews of Islamic history were accused of conspiring with the Meccans; 600-900 Qurayza men were beheaded (except for the few who chose to convert to Islam) and their properties confiscated.
After Muhammad's death in 632, the Islamic empire grew rapidly, encompassing what is now the Islamic history, Islamic history, Islamic history, and Islamic history. Most of the new subjects were Christian or Jewish, and considered People of the Book. (After some argument, the Islamic historys were considered People of the Book as well). Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians were called Islamic history, protected peoples. As noted above, they could worship, follow their own family law, and own property. People of the Book were not subject to certain Islamic rules, such as the prohibitions on alcohol and pork, but were subject to other restrictions. Under the Islamic state, they were exempt from military service, but were required to pay a Islamic history known as Islamic history. (They were, however, exempt from the Islamic history required of Muslims). They could be bureaucrats and advisors, but they could never be rulers.
They were not subject to forced conversion. In fact, under the first Islamic historys and the Islamic history dynasty, conversion was discouraged. Arab troops were settled in garrison towns like Islamic history and Islamic history, in part to keep them separate from the conquered peoples. If a dhimmi wanted to convert, he/she could only do so by convincing an Arab to act as a sponsor or patron, adopting the dhimmi in the patron's tribe and making him/her an honorary Arab. There are claims that there were several instances in which entire communities wanted to convert, and were prevented; and that they were more useful as taxpayers.
The Syriac Islamic history Islamic history wrote in his correspondence to Simeon of Rewardashir, "As for the Arabs, to whom God has at this time given rule (shultãnâ) over the world, you know well how they act toward us. Not only do they not oppose Christianity, but they praise our faith, honour the priests and saints of our Lord, and give aid to the churches and monasteries."
Later Islamic practiceEdit
Under the Islamic historys and Islamic historys, the Islamic community was increasingly fragmented into various sects and kingdoms, each of which had its own evolving policy towards dhimmi and towards conquered polytheists.
The Islamic heartlandEdit
In general, the policies of the territories comprising the earliest Islamic conquests were never harsh towards the dhimmis. Although conversion to Islam was made easier (all one had to do was to recite the confession of faith, many dhimmis did not convert as a result of Muslims tolerance. Areas that were majority Christian or Zoroastrian before the Arab conquest at some point became overwhelmingly Muslim. Moreover, at some point (it is not clear when), non-Muslims were forbidden to visit the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina, while some hadith even urged their exclusion from the entire Arabian peninsula.
Later Islamic conquestsEdit
With the Islamic historys and later the Islamic history, Islam also expanded further into northern Islamic history. Islamic history, in Islamic history, described this as "probably the bloodiest story in history". This approach was not uniform, and different rulers adopted different strategies. The Mughal emperor Islamic history, for example, was relatively tolerant towards Hindus, while his great-grandson Islamic history was heavily intolerant. Hindus were ultimately given the tolerated religious minority status of dhimmi. However, the underlying complexity of Islamic history was useful in this regard, as it had always posited an underlying unity of all things, including the fusion of various deities into a single reality (Islamic history).
The Islamic history of India were not as fortunate; although Buddhism had been in decline prior to the Muslim invasions, the destruction of monastic universities in the invasions such as Islamic history and Islamic history were a calamity from which it never recovered. According to one Buddhist scholar, the monasteries were destroyed because they were large, fortified edifices considered threats by Muslim Turk invaders, not because they were non-Muslim institutions.
The Islamic history rulers of Muslim Islamic history were initially intolerant, and engaged in forced conversions ; Islamic history, for example, was forced to masquerade as a Muslim and eventually flee Spain after the initial Almohad conquest.
However, it is worth mentioning that most Muslims rulers in Spain could be considered tolerant with some exceptions. Christians were free to practice their own beliefs, and had kept their own churches. The tolerant atmosphere in Muslim Spain made it a refuge for Jews persecuted in other European lands.
Comparative religion and anthropology of religionEdit
In the early 11th century, the Islamic scholar Islamic history wrote detailed comparative studies on the Islamic history of religions across the Islamic history, Islamic history and especially the Islamic history. Biruni's Islamic history was only possible for a scholar deeply immersed in the lore of other nations. He carried out extensive, personal investigations of the peoples, customs, and religions of the Islamic history, and was a pioneer in Islamic history and the anthropology of religion. According to Islamic history, "It is rare until modern times to find so fair and unprejudiced a statement of the views of other Islamic historys, so earnest an attempt to study them in the best sources, and such care to find a method which for this branch of study would be both rigorous and just." Biruni compared Islam with pre-Islamic religions, and was willing to accept certain elements of pre-Islamic wisdom which would conform with his understanding of the Islamic spirit.
In the introduction to his Indica, Biruni himself writes that his intent behind the work was to engage Islamic history between Islam and the Islamic history, particularly Islamic history as well as Islamic history.
- Islamic history, Islamic history, Islamic history have a significant population from the Hindu, Christian and Buddhist faith. They are allowed to practice their faith, build places of worship and even have missionary schools and organizations but with limitation of such practice. Some Muslim countries nationally observe Hindu, Christian and Buddhist holidays, e.g. Durga Puja, Maghi Purnima, Buddha Purnima, Ashari Purnima, Moharram, Islamic history etc.
- In Islamic history, there are about 1.8 million Christians (10% of the population) from about 15 different religious and ethnic sects, as well as a Islamic history, and they have many hundreds of independent privately-owned churches and some 15 synagogues. The freedom of religion is well observed by the state law as well as the historical long record of tolerance since the Ummayde caliph days. Christmas and Easter days are official holidays for both the Catholic or Orthodox calendar.
Some predominantly Muslim countries are more intolerant of non-Muslims:
- Islamic history has different electorates for Muslims and non-Muslims, and limits the public positions a non-Muslim can hold.
- Islamic history limits religious freedom to a high degree, prohibiting public worship by other religions.
- The now-overthrown Islamic history regime in Islamic history was considered intolerant by many observers. Some ancient Buddhist monuments, like the Islamic history, were destroyed as idolatrous.
- The Islamic history government of Islamic history recognizes Islamic historys, Islamic historys, and Islamic historys as minorities- although all three groups are subjected to some severe discrimination in practice - while the situation of Islamic history, considered by the government as a pro-Zionist, un-Islamic heresy, is far worse. See Islamic history.
- In Islamic history, there was extensive use of the rhetoric of religious war by both parties in the decades-long battle between the Muslim North and the largely non-Muslim South (see Islamic history.)
- In Islamic history, a Islamic history, Islamic history judgement of the Islamic history created a clear demarcation between "recognized religions" — Islam, Christianity and Judaism — and all other religious beliefs; the ruling effectively delegitimatizes and forbids the practice of all but these aforementioned religions. The ruling leaves members of other religious communities, including Bahá'ís, without the ability to obtain the necessary government documents to have rights in their country, essentially denying them of all rights of citizenship. They cannot obtain ID cards, birth certificates, death certificates, marriage or divorce certificates, and passports; they also cannot be employed, educated, treated in public hospitals or vote among other things. This poll tax is different from the alms tax (Islamic history) paid by the Muslim subjects of a Muslim state. Whereas jizya is compulsory and paid by the tolerated community per head count, zakat was paid only if one can afford it. Muslims and non-Muslims who hold property, especially land, were required however to pay Islamic history.
Territorial disputes Edit
One of the open issues in the relation between Islamic states and non-Islamic states is the claim from hardline Islamic history that once a certain land, state or territory has been under 'Muslim' rule, it can never be relinquished anymore, and that such rule, somewhere in history would give the Muslims a kind of an eternal right on the claimed territory. This claim is particularly controversial with regard to Islamic history and to a lesser degree Islamic history and parts of the Islamic history and it applies to Islamic history as well.
Forced conversion Edit
Many Muslim scholars believe that Quranic verses such as "Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error" () and () show that Islam prohibits Islamic history towards people of any religion.
However, some scholars such as Islamic history believe that verse 2:256 was (partially) abrogated by later verses such as , and so the verse only applies towards Christians, Jews, and Islamic history (Islamic history) and not towards polytheists:
- Then, when the sacred months are drawn away, slay the idolaters wherever you find them, and take them, and confine them, and lie in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they repent, and perform the prayer, and pay the alms, then let them go their way; God is All-forgiving, All-compassionate.
The meaning of this verse 9:5 has however been a subject of discussion amongst other scholars of Islam as well (see Islamic history). This Surah was Islamic history in the historical context of a broken treaty between Muslims and a group of idolaters during the time of Islamic history Islamic history. Regarding this verse, Quranic translator Islamic history writes: "in this context, this definitely refers to the ones who broke the treaty" rather than polytheists generally.
According to historian Islamic history, forced conversions played a role especially in the 12th century under the Islamic history dynasty of Islamic history and Islamic history as well as in Islamic history where the Islamic history Islamic history is dominant. He is however also of the opinion that other incidents of forced conversions have been rare in Islamic history. He adds that "In the early centuries of Islamic rule there was little or no attempt at forcible conversion, the spread of the faith being effected rather by persuasion and inducement." A few well-known examples of forced conversion are
- Islamic history - Islamic historyese-Islamic history activist, from Christianity; later returned to his Christian faith.
- Islamic history and Islamic history - forced to convert at gunpoint by terrorists of the Islamic history.
- Islamic history - convert from Judaism, 17th century mystic, pseudo-Messiah and the self-proclaimed "King of Jews". Converted ostensibly of his own free will, while in prison. Although, some speculate that he may have been executed for treason had he not converted, Muslim authorities were opposed to his death.
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- Islamic history
- Islamic history
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